The new jobs: the future of the jobs market


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The irruption of new technologies and the growing robotization of the economy are the pillars of the “Fourth Industrial Revolution”, which development has not only transformed, in just a few years, our lifestyle and the way in which we relate to others but has also changed the productive processes, the form of consumption and, therefore, the dynamics of the labor market. Artificial intelligence, robotics, virtual reality, the management and storage of data outside the physic spaces (the cloud), collaborative economy, mobile applications, social networks, online commerce, among many other innovations, are already part of our present and their influence, no doubt, will intensify in the future.

This deep transformation must be seen as an opportunity that we need to benefit from and that, surely, will involve great advantages and benefits to society as a whole, including to the immense majority of workers. Technology will not only allow increasing the economy’s productivity even more, with the subsequent increase of salaries, but will also reinforce many other existing jobs, while it will allow the emergence of new jobs that, nowadays, do not exist. As a result, much more employment will be created in the medium and long term.

In the specific case of Spain, the Observatorio para el Análisis y Desarrollo Económico de Internet (Adei) estimates that 3.2 million jobs will appear between 2016 and 2030 related to digitalization, and 600,000 more will emerge with a high human component –that is, little susceptible to be substituted by machines–. This positive outlook of the future labor market is not just speculation, since history has demonstrated that technological advances end up generating a very beneficial impact, both in economy in general and in the labor market in particular.

The data analyzed by Deloitte throughout the past 144 years in England and Wales demonstrate that technology generated much more employment than it destroyed due to the obsolescence of certain professions during the successive technological revolutions that took place during that period. Likewise, the most digitalized countries have lower unemployment rates if we compare them with the least robotized countries.

Currently, this change has already resulted in the appearance of new jobs throughout the past five years, from specialist in digital marketing and social media manager, to big data analyst or designer and developer of mobile applications, among other professions linked to the virtual world. This is just the beginning, however. According to the World Economic Forum, 65% of the children who are in elementary school now will hold jobs that do not exist today, while Dell Technologies states that 85% of the jobs in 2030 have not been created yet and, therefore, will be completely new.

The Internet of Things, 3D printing, biotechnology, autonomous cars, drones, domotics, urban agriculture, digital teaching, artificial organs, the extension and implementation of new online services… Everything is yet to be done. Next, we will address some of the jobs that will emerge in the future, according to the experts.

“The data analyzed by Deloitte throughout the past 144 years in England and Wales demonstrate that technology generated much more employment than it destroyed”

1. Nano doctor

The huge advances in nanotechnology will revolutionize the world of medicine within the next few years thanks to the development of tiny devices, of subatomic size, that will completely transform the diagnostic techniques and cure of diseases.

2. Organ designer

In the future there will also be physicians who are expert in 3D bioprinting that will use robotics and the advances in genetics and tissue generation to design mechanical exoskeletons that can be controlled with the mind, and even artificial organs, contributing thus to reduce the transplant waiting lists.

3. Farmer-pharmacist

Transgenic foods have completely transformed agriculture, improving the productivity of the crops and intensifying the resilience to plagues and droughts, but the genetic modification of plants will also evolve towards the concentration of more and new therapeutic substances in foods and their derived products, with the aim to improve the health and wellbeing of the consumers.

4. Programmer of The Internet of Things

The Internet is not only circumscribed to the virtual world, it extends to the physical scope by means of the interconnection of all kind of devices and infrastructures that, simply, must have a sensor capable of transmitting and receiving data. The cities and homes of the future will be connected to the net and, therefore, a large number of professionals in this area will be needed within the next few years, from programmers to engineers, big data analysts and technicians in charge of its maintenance and repair.

5. Data journalist

The press is another field where technology has had a great impact. Technology has modified completely the traditional formats and even the way of working of the information professionals, to the point that new professional profiles have been created related to data journalism. This discipline consists on offering the reader visualizations and data treatments to explain the news in a clear and understandable way and, among other things, it requires the incorporation of programmers to extract and manage the data that are relevant from an information point of view.

6. Artificial intelligence designer

The growing sector of artificial intelligence, as it happens in the case of robotics, will need a large volume of professionals specialized in the brain’s functioning and in the necessary technology to replicate it artificially, opening, thus, a new field of opportunities to programmers and engineers, but also to humanities’ students, so that machines and robots can imitate human behavior.

7. Lawyer expert in cybersecurity

With the development of technology, new conflicts arise, as well as crimes and legal doubts which will require lawyers and justice professionals specialized in electronic commerce, drones and cybersecurity, among other fields.

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